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Saturday, March 26, 2011

Making Mug Ceramic

Making mug is the same like making ceramic furniture but different in shape, this is one of the source about making them.

Making ceramics require special techniques and unique. This relates to plastic properties of clay/mud, which required specific skills in processing and handling. Making ceramics is different from making wooden crafts, metal, or other. The process of making pottery is a series of lengthy process that includes there are critical stages. Critical, because the stage is most at risk of failure. Stages in the process of making ceramic interrelated with each other. Initial process is done properly, will produce a good product too. Thus otherwise, an error in the initial stages of the process will be generating products that are less good, too.

Stages of making ceramics
There are several stages of processing to be done to create a ceramic product, namely:
1. Processing materials
The purpose of processing this material is to process raw materials from a variety of materials not yet ready to use a ceramic body which has ready-made plastic. Material processing to done with wet or dry method, the manual way or masinal. In processing this material there are certain processes that must be done such as reduction grain size, filtering, mixing, agitation (mixing), and reduction of water content. Grain size reduction can be done by pulverization or grinding with ballmill. Screening is intended to separate the material with a size that is not uniform. Grain size typically use a mesh size. Size commonly used is 60-100 mesh.Mixing and stirring aims to obtain a homogeneous mixture of materials / uniforms. Stirring can be done manually or masinal with blunger or mixer. Reduction of water content performed on the wet process, where results are tangible material mixture advanced sludge process, namely coagulation to reduce the amount of water contained so that a plastic ceramic bodies. This process can be done with aerated gypsum or done on a table with filterpress tool. The last step is pengulian. Pengulian intended to homogenize the body mass clay and release air bubbles that may be trapped. Body mass ceramics that have been diuli, stored in a sealed container, and then cured in order to have plasticity of the maximum.

2. Formation
Formation stage is the stage of change chunks of plastic clay body becomes the desired objects. There are three main engineering in forming the ceramic object: establishment of a direct hand (handbuilding), rotary technique (throwing), and printing technique (Casting). Formation of a direct hand In making ceramic technique of forming a direct hand, there are several methods known so far: massage techniques (pinching), helical technique (coiling), and slab techniques (Slabbing). Formation with swivel technique Formation with swivel technique is the most basic engineering and is a peculiarity in the craft of pottery. Because of these peculiar, so that this engineering become a kind of icon in the field of ceramics. Compared with other engineering, engineering It has the highest difficulty level. Someone does not just direct ceramics can make things so try it. It takes a long time to train the fingers in order to form 'feeling' in the form of a ceramic object. Ceramics formed over a round table with a rotating head. Objects that can be made with this engineering are objects shaped cylinder base: for example a plate, bowls, vases, jars and others. The main tool used is the rotary tool (the turntable). The turntable can be either manual rotary tool rotary tool masinal mapupun driven by electricity. In brief, the stages of formation in rotary techniques are: centering (centering), coning (pengerucutan), forming (forming), rising (making the height of objects), refining Formation of the printing technique the contour (smoothed). In this engineering, ceramic products are not formed directly by hand, but use the help mold / molds made from gypsum. Printing technique can be performed in 2 ways: dense print and print casting (slip). In the printing technique of solid raw materials used is a plastic clay body while in the printing technique of casting material used in the form of a clay body slip / mud. The advantage of this printing technique is the object produced has the same shape and size exactly. Unlike the rotary technique or establishment of direct,

3. Drying
Once finished ceramic body is formed, then the next stage is drying. Goal The main stage is to eliminate plastic water attached to the ceramic body. When the plastic ceramic dried body will occur three important processes: (1) Water in the layers each particles diffusing clay to the surface, evaporate, until finally the particles touch each other and the shrinkage stops, (2) Water in the pores disappear without any shrinkage; and (3) the water is absorbed on the surface of the particle is lost. These stages explained why it should be done in a slow drying process to avoid cracking / cracking especially in phase 1 (Norton, 1975/1976). The process is too fast will result in keretakkan due to loss of water suddenly without balanced arrangement of particles clay perfectly, resulting in sudden depreciation. To avoid drying too quickly, in the early stages of ceramic objects aerated at room temperature. After not happen shrinkage, drying with a light direct sun or drying machine can be done.

4. Burning
Burning at the core of making ceramics, where the process is changing the mass of fragile become a solid mass, hard, and strong. Burning is done in a furnace high temperature. There are several parameters that influence the result of combustion: temperature sintering / mature, furnace atmosphere and of course minerals involved (Magetti, 1982). During combustion, ceramic bodies having several important reactions, missing / appears mineral phases, and lost weight (weight loss). In general, the stages of combustion and furnace fire conditions can be specified in the table.

Burning crackers
Burning of biscuits is a very important stage because the combustion is a objects can be referred to as ceramics. Biscuits (bisque) is a term for ceramic objects that have been burned in the temperature range 700 - 1000oC. Burning of biscuits was simply create an object to be strong, hard, water-resistant. For ceramic objects Glazed, burning crackers is an early stage for objects that will be glazed strong enough and able to absorb glaze optimally.

5. Pengglasiran
Pengglasiran is performed prior to step glaze firing. Object ceramic glaze coated biscuits dipped way, poured, sprayed, or brushing. For small objects glaze coating-was done by dyed and poured; to large objects is done by spraying the coating. Function glaze on the product ceramics is to add beauty, so that more water-resistant, and add effects specific as you wish. All processes in the manufacture of ceramics will determine the resulting product. Therefore the accuracy in performing stage for stage is needed to produce satisfactory product.

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